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Operating Costs and Performance Measures

Operating Expenses

Concepts

Operating expenses are those expenses incurred by transit agencies that are associated with operating mass transportation services (vehicle operations, maintenance and administration). Reconciling items are expenses that vary as transit agencies have different accounting practices due to local ordinances on accounting treatments. Regarding performance measures, the NTST excludes reconciling items such as depreciation, interest expenses, leases and rentals.

Comments

Operating expenses increased nearly 38 percent over the last 10 years. The modes showing the highest increases were light rail, demand response and vanpool. These increases reflect the addition of new systems during the same period.

 

Total Operating Expense 1997 - 2006

Bar Chart Total Operating Expense (Millions) 1997-2006 
1997-$16,962.0, 1998-$17,580.0, 1999-$18,781.2, 2000-$20,008.8, 2001-$21,528.8, 2002-$22,905.1, 2003-$21,528.8, 2004-$25,426.8, 2005-23,878, 2006-24,562

 

 

Total Operating Expense by Mode 2006

Total Operating Expense by Mode-2006
Bus-54%, Vanpool-0.3%, Other-3%, Commuter Rail-13%, Demand Response-8%, Heavy Rail-18%, Light Rail-4%


Operating Expense by Function and Object Class

Concepts

Operating expense data is reported by mode, function and object class. Function refers to the activity performed or cost center of a transit agency. Object class refers to groupings of expenses on the basis of goods or services purchased.

The four functions are:

1.       Vehicle operations

2.       Vehicle maintenance

3.       Non-vehicle maintenance

4.       General administration.

Comments

The transit industry is labor intensive. Salaries and wages and fringe benefits account for nearly 79.2 percent of the total directly operated expenditures. Fifty-three percent of total expenditures are devoted to vehicle operations.

 

 

Operating Expense 2006

 

 

Operating Expense by Function

Operating Expense by Object Class Directly Operated Service

Pie Chart Operating Expense by Function 2006
Vehicle Operations-54%, Vehicle Maintenance-20%,Non-Vehicle Maintenance-10%, General Administration-16% Pie Chart Operation Expense by Object Class - Directly Operated Service 2006
Salaries-47%, Fringe Benefits-31%, Services-6%, Materials and Supplies-12%, Utilities-4%, Other-0%

 

Cost Effectiveness (Operating Expense per Unlinked Passenger Trip)

Concepts

Cost effectiveness is the relationship between service inputs and service consumption.

Service input is the quantity of resources expended to produce transit service, expressed in either monetary or non-monetary terms. Examples include operating cost (dollars expended for operations, maintenance and administration), employee hours (total operating, maintenance or administration), capital investment and energy (fuel cost or volume).

Service consumption is the amount of service used by the public expressed in either monetary or non-monetary terms. Examples include unlinked passenger trips, passenger miles and operating revenue.

Comments

Overall, operating expense per unlinked passenger trip increased 17 percent over the last 10 years. With the exception of heavy rail, all modes had increases greater than inflation.


 

Operating Expense per Unlinked Passenger Trip 1997 - 2006

Bar Chart Operating Expense per Unlinked Passenger Trip 1997-2006 1995-$2.16, 1996-$2.16, 1997-$2.13, 1998-$2.17, 1999-$2.20, 2000-$2.29, 2001-$2.39, 2002-$2.54, 2003-$2.72, 2004-$2.85, 2005-$2.6 2006-$2.62

 

Operating Expense per Unlinked Passenger Trip 1997 2006

(Constant 2000 Dollars)

 

Year

Operating

Expense

(Millions)

Unlinked

Passenger Trips (Millions)

Operating

Expense

per Unlinked

Passenger Trip

1997

$17,840

7,954

$2.24

1998

$18,307

8,115

$2.26

1999

$19,267

8,523

$2.26

2000

$20,009

8,720

$2.29

2001

$21,037

9,008

$2.34

2002

$21,971

9,017

$2.44

2003

$22,597

8,876

$2.55

2004

$23,088

8,937

$2.58

2005

$23,878

9,175

$2.60

2006

$24,561

9,379

$2.62

% Change

38%

18%

17%

 


 

Operating Expense per Unlinked Passenger Trip for Bus and Rail Modes 1997 - 2006

Bar Chart Operating Expense per Unlinked Passenger Trips for Bus and Rail Modes 1997-2006

1997
Bus-$2.0
Commuter Rail-$6.4
Heavy Rail-$1.4
Light Rail-$1.8

1998
Bus-$2.0
Commuter Rail-$6.2
Heavy Rail-$1.5
Light Rail-$1.8

1999
Bus-$2.1
Commuter Rail-$6.5
Heavy Rail-$1.5
Light Rail-$1.9

2000
Bus-$2.2
Commuter Rail-$6.5
Heavy Rail-$1.5
Light Rail-$1.9

2001
Bus-$2.3
Commuter Rail-$6.8
Heavy Rail-$1.5
Light Rail-$2.0

2002
Bus-$2.4
Commuter Rail-$7.2
Heavy Rail-$1.6
Light Rail-$2.3

2003
Bus-$2.6
Commuter Rail-$7.7
Heavy Rail-$1.7
Light Rail-$2.4

2004
Bus-$2.7
Commuter Rail-$8.3
Heavy Rail-$1.7
Light Rail-$2.5

2005
Bus-$2.5
Commuter Rail-$7.6
Heavy Rail-$1.6
Light Rail-$2.3

2006
Bus-$2.5
Commuter Rail-$7.2
Heavy Rail-$1.5
Light Rail-$2.2

 

Cost Efficiency (Operating Expense per Vehicle Revenue Hour)

Concepts

Cost efficiency is the relationship between service inputs and service outputs.

Service output is the quantity of service produced by a transit operator, expressed in non-monetary terms. Examples include vehicle hours (total and revenue), vehicle miles (total and revenue), capacity miles (total vehicle capacity times revenue mileage), service reliability (miles between system failures) and safety (number of accidents).

Comments

Overall, operating expense per vehicle revenue hour increased by approximately 6 percent over the last 10 years.

 

 

Total Operating Expense per Vehicle Revenue Hour 1997 - 2006

Bar Chart Total Operating Expense per Vehicle Revenue Hour 1997-2006
1997-$89.3, 1998-$88.9, 1999-$90.8, 2000-$92.8, 2001-$96.6, 2002-$99.5, 2003-$103.22, 2004-$105.9, 2005-$99.1, 2006-$99.6

 

 


Operating Expense per Vehicle Revenue Hour 1997 - 2006

 

Year

Operating Expense

(Millions)
(Constant 2000 Dollars)

Vehicle Revenue Hours

(Millions)

Operating Expense per Vehicle Revenue Hour
(Constant 2000 Dollars)

1997

$16,962

190

$93.9

1998

$17,580

198

$92.5

1999

$18,781

207

$93.1

2000

$20,009

216

$92.8

2001

$21,529

223

$94.4

2002

$22,905

230

$95.4

2003

$24,185

234

$96.4

2004

$25,427

240

$96.2

2005

$27,238

241

$99.1

2006

$29,025

247

$99.6

% Change

71.1%

29.9%

6.0%

 

 

Service Effectiveness

Concepts

Service effectiveness is the relationship between service outputs and service consumption.

Comments

Unlinked passenger trips per vehicle revenue hour decreased by 9 percent from 1997 to 2006. This was due to increased service supplied for bus mode in low density urbanized areas and increased demand for low capacity modes such as demand response and vanpool.

 

 

Unlinked Passenger Trip per Vehicle Revenue Hour 1997 - 2006

Bar Chart Unlinked Passenger Trip per Vehicle Revenue Hour 1997-2006 1995-40.9, 1996-41.1, 1997-41.9, 1998-41.0, 1999-41.2, 2000-40.4, 2001-40.4, 2002-39.2, 2003-37.9, 2004-37.3, 2005-38.1, 2006-38


 

Unlinked Passenger Trip per Vehicle Revenue Hour 1997 - 2006

 

Year

Unlinked Passenger Trips (Millions)

Vehicle Revenue Hours (Millions)

Unlinked Passenger Trips per Vehicle Revenue Hour

1997

7954

190

41.9

1998

8115

198

41.0

1999

8523

207

41.2

2000

8720

216

40.4

2001

9008

223

40.4

2002

9017

230

39.2

2003

8876

234

37.9

2004

8937

240

37.3

2005

9175

241

38.1

2006

9379

247

38.0

% Change

17.9%

29.9%

-9.2%

 

 

Unlinked Passenger Trip per Vehicle Revenue Hour by Mode 1997 - 2006

Line Chart Unlinked Passenger Trip per Vehicle Revenue Hour by Mode 1997-2006

1997
Bus-36.9
Commuter Rail-52.5
Demand Response-3.7
Heavy Rail-93.1
Light Rail-99.8
Vanpool-8.7
Other-47.1

1998
Bus-37.0
Commuter Rail-52.6
Demand Response-2.5
Heavy Rail-89.3
Light Rail-100.2
Vanpool-7.5
Other-50.5

1999
Bus-33.5
Commuter Rail-46.6
Demand Response-2.1
Heavy Rail-84.3
Light Rail-90.6
Vanpool-7.4
Other-42.9

2000
Bus-36.5
Commuter Rail-47.5
Demand Response-2.4
Heavy Rail-93.1
Light Rail-94.1
Vanpool-5.9
Other-50.9

2001
Bus-36.5
Commuter Rail-52.1
Demand Response-2.3
Heavy Rail-94.3
Light Rail-94.9
Vanpool-7.5
Other-52.0

2002
Bus-36.1
Commuter Rail-50.5
Demand Response-2.2
Heavy Rail-90.2
Light Rail-86.3
Vanpool-6.8
Other-46.7

2003
Bus-34.7
Commuter Rail-49.6
Demand Response-2.2
Heavy Rail-89.7
Light Rail-83.6
Vanpool-6.1
Other-49.6

2004
Bus-34.5
Commuter Rail-48.5
Demand Response-2.1
Heavy Rail-89.6
Light Rail-81.3
Vanpool-7.1
Other-30.7

2005
Bus-35.2
Commuter Rail-48.2
Demand Response-2.2
Heavy Rail-89.6
Light Rail-83.4
Vanpool-7
Other-44.7

2006
Bus-34.8
Commuter Rail-48.2
Demand Response-2.1
Heavy Rail-92.6
Light Rail-82.1
Vanpool-7.1
Other-46.5

 

Quality of Transit Service

Fatalities

Concepts

A fatality is defined as a transit-caused death confirmed within 30 days following a transit related incident.

Individuals Involved

Fatalities are categorized according to six categories of individuals:

1.       Passengers: A person who is on board a transit vehicle or who is boarding / alighting, including those using ramps and lifts.

2.       Revenue facility occupants: A person who is inside the public passenger area of transit revenue facility. Employees, other workers or trespassers are not transit facility occupants.

3.       Employees: An individual who is compensated by the transit agency.

4.       Other workers: A person who is not employed by the transit agency or a purchased transportation (PT) provider contracted to provide specific services to the transit agency.

5.       Trespassers: A person in an area of the transit property that is prohibited for public use.

6.       Others: A person who is not a passenger, transit facility occupant, employee, other worker or trespasser.

 

 

Total Fatalities (*) 1997 - 2006

Bar Chart Total Fatalities 1997-2006
1997-171, 1998-181, 1999-181, 2000-182, 2001-160, 2002-159, 2003-173, 2004-168, 2005-149, 2006-162

(*) Data excludes Commuter Rail and includes suicides. Data is reported by calendar year.

 

 

Total Fatalities 1997 - 2006

 

Year

Total

Fatalities

Year

Total

Fatalities

1997

208

2002

179

1998

213

2003

194

1999

221

2004

177

2000

229

2005

149

2001

191

2006

162

 

 

 

Fatalities per 100 Million Passenger Miles 2006

 

Bar Chart Total Fatalities 1997-2006
1997-171, 1998-181, 1999-181, 2000-182, 2001-160, 2002-159, 2003-173, 2004-168, 2005-0.4, 2006-0.41

 

 

 


Distribution of Fatalities

Comments

Most victims in transit-related accidents are non-passengers. Passenger fatalities account for 21 percent of all fatalities (excluding suicides).

Distribution of Fatalities — 2006 Number of Fatalities — 2006
Pie Chart Distribution of Fatalities (Excluding Suicides) 2006
Passengers-11%, Revenue Facility Occupants-1%, Employees-5%, Other Workers-1%, Trespassers-8%, Other-73%

Victim Type

Fatalities

Passengers

18

Revenue Facility Occupants

2

Employees

8

Other Workers

1

Trespassers

12

Others

109

(*) Data does not include Commuter Rail

 

Reliability

Miles between Major Mechanical System Failures Bus

Concepts

These are failures of a mechanical element of the revenue vehicle that prevents the vehicle from completing a scheduled revenue trip or from starting the next scheduled revenue trip because actual movement is limited or because of safety concerns. Examples of major bus failures include breakdowns of air equipment, brakes, doors, engine cooling system, steering and front axle, rear axle and suspension and torque converters.

A number of factors affect the number of major mechanical system failures incurred by a transit agency including local operating conditions, types of vehicles operated, and effectiveness of the maintenance program. However, it is expected that the same types of major mechanical failures will be reported by different agencies. The differences among agencies may be in the numbers reported, not the types of major mechanical failures.

Vehicle miles are the total miles that a vehicle travels while in service (actual vehicle revenue miles and deadhead miles). See the Transit in the United States section for definitions of vehicle revenue miles and deadhead miles.

Comments

Due to changes in the definition of major and minor system failures over the years, only the years 2001 through 2006 are shown in the NTST.


 

Miles between Major Mechanical System Failures Bus 2001 - 2006

Bar Chart Miles Between Major System Failures Bus Mode 2001-2006
2001-6454, 2002-7290, 2003-7480, 2004-7467.0, 2005-7026.1, 2006-6886

 

 

Miles between Major Mechanical System Failures (Directly Operated Service) 2001 - 2006

 

Year

Major System Failures

Vehicle Miles (Millions)

Vehicle Miles Between Major System Failures

2001

296,480

1,913

6,454

2002

261,342

1,912

7,316

2003

248,968

1,862

7,480

2004

247,676

1,849

7,467

2005

261,793

1,839

7,026

2006

266,745

1,837

6,886

% Change

-10.0%

-4.0%

6.8%

 

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