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Chapter 1 – Introduction

Understanding and Using this Report

The Data Tables for the 2007 National Transit Database (NTD) report year is one of three publications comprising the National Transit Database Program’s Annual Report. It provides detailed summaries of financial and operating data submitted to the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) by the nation's mass transit agencies for the report year ending on or between January 1 and December 31, 2007. FTA administers the NTD Program through a professional services support contract under the guidance of FTA’s Office of Oversight in the Office of Policy and Program Management.

Two additional publications complete the Annual Report:

1.     The National Transit Summaries and Trends

2.     The Transit Profiles presented in two volumes: The Fifty Largest Agencies and Transit Profiles

For the 2007 report year, 671 transit agencies submitted data. Of that, 90 agencies operated nine or fewer vehicles across all modes and types of service (TOS), and 1 received a waiver from detailed reporting. Thus, 580 agencies are included in the NTD database. Agencies granted waivers are listed in Appendix B — Transit Agencies Receiving Reporting Waivers. Appendix C lists agencies by name with Appendix D listing agencies by UZA name.

49 USC 5335 requires the establishment of a uniform system of accounts and records, plus a reporting system for the collection and dissemination of public mass transportation financial and operating data by uniform categories. All applicants and direct beneficiaries of Federal assistance under 49 USC 5307 are subject to the reporting system and the uniform system of accounts and records. The NTD Reporting System assists FTA in meeting the need for information on which to base planning for public transportation services and in making public-sector investment decisions at all levels of government.

Definitions for transit terminology used in the 2007 NTD Annual Report publications may be found in the 2007 NTD Reporting Manual or on the NTD web site at www.NTDProgram.gov.

Report Organization

The report consists of two chapters:

Chapter 1 — Understanding and Using this Report: Provides general information to assist the reader in using this and earlier reports.

Chapter 2 — The Data Tables: Financial and operating data by specific mode for individual transit agencies. Each table is described and general information is provided.

Data Tables Organization

The Data Tables in Chapter 2 are organized into four major groups:

1.     Transit revenues

2.     Transit expenses

3.     Non-financial operating data

4.     Performance indicators.

The first three groups of tables (transit revenues, expenses, and non-financial operating data) contain summaries of the data required by NTD. The fourth group displays performance indicators comprised of selected statistics derived from data in the first three groups. Typically, these indicators are computed as ratios, relating measures of input to measures of output (e.g., operating expenses (OE) per vehicle revenue hour (VRH)), or measures of output to measures of service consumption (e.g., unlinked passenger trips (UPT) per VRH).

The following chart details the numbering of the Annual Report tables and notes on any changes made to the tables since 2004.

2007 Table Number

Table Title

Table Description

Notes

1

Summary of Operating Funds Applied

Summary of the main operating sources grouped into large categories

 

2

Directly Generated Sources for Transit Operating Funds Applied

Detailed directly generated funding sources

 

3

Federal Government Sources for Transit Operating Funds Applied

Detailed federal operating funding sources

 

4

State Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Operating Funds Applied

Detailed state tax operating funding sources

 

5

Local Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Operating Funds Applied

Detailed local tax operating funding sources

 

6

Directly Generated Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Operating Funds Applied

Detailed directly generated tax operating funding sources

 

7

Transit Capital Funds Applied — Summary and Federal Sources:

Summary of capital funding sources and detailed federal capital funding sources.

 

8

State Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Capital Funds Applied

Detailed state tax capital funding sources

 

9

Local Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Capital Funds Applied

Detailed local tax capital funding sources

 

10

Directly Generated Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Capital Funds Applied

Detailed directly generated tax capital funding sources

 

11

Capital Funds Applied by Type of Expenditure

Detailed uses of capital funds by mode and type of service

 

12

Transit Operating Expenses by Mode, Type of Service and Function

Operating expenses by function, by mode and type of service

 

13

Transit Operating Expenses by Mode, and Object Class

Operating expenses by object class, by mode and type of service

 

14

Transit Operating Expenses by Mode, and Object Class — Single Mode Bus Transit Agencies

Operating expense data by function and object class for agencies operating bus only

 

15

Operators' Wages: Details by Transit Agency

Detailed data on operators' wages and hours

 

16

Revenue Vehicle Maintenance Performance

Detailed data on system interruptions by mode, directly operated service

 

17

Energy Consumption

Detailed data on sources of energy (fuel) to propel vehicles by mode, directly operated service

 

18

Employee Work Hours and Employee Counts

Detailed data on employee hours and employee counts for vehicle operations, vehicle maintenance, non-vehicle maintenance, general administration, and capital by mode, directly operated service

 

19

Transit Operating Statistics; Service Supplied and Consumed

Detailed data on service supplied and consumed by mode and type of service

 

20

Transit Operating Statistics; Service Supplied and Consumed — Train Statistics

Detailed data on train statistics by mode and type of service

 

21

Passenger Stations

Detailed data on passenger stations, elevators, escalators, ADA stations by mode and type of service

 

22

Maintenance Facilities

Detailed data on maintenance facilities, by mode and type of service

 

23

Transit Way Mileage — Rail Modes

Detailed data on transit way mileage (track mileage) and crossings for rail modes, by mode and type of service.

 

24

Transit Way Mileage — Non-Rail Modes

Detailed data on lane and directional route miles for non-rail by mode and type of service

 

25

Age distribution of Active Vehicle Inventory

Fleet age distribution by vehicle type

 

26

Fare per Passenger and Recovery Ratio

Detailed data on fare revenues, operating expenses, unlinked passenger trips, recovery ratio and fare per passenger by mode and type of service

 

27

Service Supplied and Consumed Ratios

Detailed data on service efficiency and effectiveness measures by mode and type of service

 

Special Notes on Reporting and the Data Tables

Several general issues pertaining to the reporting system and this Annual Report are summarized below. These summaries are to aid in interpreting and using the data published in this report.

Number of Agencies Reporting Since 1995

Year

Report Submissions

Full Reports Included in the Database for the Year

Reporting Waivers

Reports Deleted

1995

537

468

55

14

1996

541

462

60

19

1997

556

476

66

14

1998

575

509

60

6

1999

587

516

63

8

2000

592

518

66

7

2001

601

533

66

2

2002

613

539

74

0

2003

622

548

74

0

2004

640

563

77

0

2005

643

555

82

6

2006

657

574

83

0

2007

671

580

91*

0

* Includes 1 agency that received a waiver from detailed reporting.

Alphabetical by State

Transit agencies are organized alphabetically by state. This enables easier identification of specific transit agencies for data analysis.

Transit Agency Names

In the past, due to space limitations, transit agency names are abbreviated using 25 characters or less. Starting in 2002, the agency’s full name was included in all tables.

Identification Number and Organization Type

A four-digit identification number is assigned to each transit agency. The first digit of this number corresponds with the FTA Region in which the transit agency is located (FTA Regions 1 through10). FTA Region 10 is indicated with a zero (0).

The identification number is followed by the organization-type code:

Code

Organization Type

A

Public agency or authority that directly operates all transit service [not a state Department of Transportation (DOT)]

B

Public agency or authority that contracts for some or all transit service (not a state DOT)

C

State Department of Transportation

D

Private transportation carrier reporting on behalf of a public agency or authority

E

Other

F

Private transportation broker reporting on behalf of a public agency or authority (not a broker)

Transit Agency Fiscal Year

The NTD report year was changed beginning with 1983 to correspond to the fiscal year of the reporting transit agency.

Database Adjustments

Extensive efforts have been made to assure the quality of information contained in this report.  It is impossible, however, to achieve complete accuracy and consistency of the reported data.  In addition, the reported data do not include all relevant information generally necessary to explain apparent differences in performance (e.g., information related to work rules, topography, climate, and unusual events such as strikes and service start-ups). Users of this report, therefore, should be careful not to draw unwarranted conclusions based solely on the data contained herein.

Mode and Vehicle Type Codes

The following mnemonic codes represented by two alphabet letters are used to describe modes and vehicle types in the tables:

Code

Mode

Code

Mode

AR

Alaska railroad

LR

Light rail

AG

Automated guideway

MB

Bus

CC

Cable car

MO

Monorail

CR

Commuter rail

PB

Publico

DR

Demand response

TB

Trolleybus

FB

Ferryboat

TR

Aerial tramway

HR

Heavy rail

VP

Vanpool

IP

Inclined plane

OR

Other

JT

Jitney

 

 

 

Code

Vehicle Type

Code

Vehicle Type

AB

Articulated buses

RP

Commuter rail passenger coaches

AG

Automated guideway vehicles

RS

Commuter rail, self-propelled passenger cars

AO

Automobiles

SB

School buses

BU

 Buses

TB

Trolleybuses

CC

Cable cars

TR

Aerial tramway vehicles

DB

Double decked buses

TS

Taxicab sedan

FB

Ferryboats

TV

Taxicab van

HR

Heavy rail vehicles

TW

Taxicab station wagon

IP

Inclined plane vehicles

VN

Vans

LR

Light rail vehicles

VT

Vintage trolley / streetcar

MO

Monorail vehicles

OR

Other

RL

Commuter rail locomotives

 

 

Multi-UZA Reports

Some transit agencies, particularly agencies reporting commuter rail mode, provide data for transportation services serving more than one urbanized area (UZA). For NTD reporting purposes, a transit agency serving more than one UZA and filing a single report is assigned to the UZA that receives the majority of transportation service. For 49 USC 5307 apportionment purposes, relevant data are desegregated into the various component UZAs.

Purchased Transportation

Many transit agencies contract for some or all transportation services. Public agencies and/or private carriers may provide these contracted services. Contracted transportation services (called purchased transportation) are split in two categories:

1.     Expenses for contract carriers where data are included in the purchasing agency's report (object class 508.01).

2.     Expenses for contract carriers that file their own report (object class 508.02). Contract carriers using 100 or more vehicles to provide annual maximum service are required to file a separate report. Three tables (tables 12 through 14) identify purchased (PT) and directly operated (DO) expenses. Transportation brokerage systems under contract to public agencies and managing 100 or more VOMS are listed as PT. This results in operating data being reported twice:

Reporting of PT has undergone several revisions beginning with the 1984 report year:

1.     The ability to allocate expenses from an object class, such as PT expenses, to a functional category. Thus, PT expenses are reported by function:

2.     Prior to 1984, reporters were required to submit all PT expenses under general administration. Between 1991 and 1995, expenses allocated to object classes 508.01 and 508.02 for PT were reported under either vehicle operations (010) or general administration (160).

3.     In 1995, FTA required all agencies contracting for transportation services to fully detail their PT costs by mode, function, and object class. The reporting change also required reporting the full cost of the PT services, including all costs whose funding sources were not included in the contracts. However, many agencies experienced problems complying with the new requirements, so until 1997 FTA allowed agencies to report PT expenses under object class 508.01 as in previous years. Table 12 includes PT expenses detailed by function.

4.     In 2002, a new change was introduced to the reporting of PT expenses. Other costs incurred by the buyer (reported on the Contractual Relationship form (B-20)) is now detailed by function and object class. These are expenses incurred by the buyer of service that are associated to the purchased service. Contract costs are reported by function only as in the past.

Deleted, Questionable, Waived, and Not Reported Data

Appendix E documents all data items that were deemed questionable (Q) during the data validation process. The data is listed by module and form, and for each agency / mode / type of service (TOS) / data item, the affected tables are indicated. The data affected are those where the transit agency failed to respond satisfactorily to questions raised during the validation process, and / or did not collect the data in accordance with FTA’s definitions and requirements. In addition, “W” indicates that the reporting agency was granted a waiver, deleted data is indicated with a “D”, and “N” indicates data that was not reported.

Code

Indication

Q

Questionable

W

Waived

D

Deleted (some or all data was deleted)

N

Not reported

Data may be deleted or considered questionable by FTA when one or more of the following circumstances exist:

Vehicles Operated in Maximum Service

Data for vehicles operated in maximum service (VOMS) are reported by mode and TOS on the Transit Agency Identification form (B-10). VOMS is the revenue vehicle count taken during a transit agency’s maximum season of the year, on the day of the week that this maximum occurs. It is not taken on a day when a special event or other extreme set of circumstances would cause the resulting tally to represent a one-time event rather than a recurring maximum service requirement. Because it does not include spare and stored vehicles, this fleet-size measure provides a more meaningful estimation of a transit agency’s operating characteristics.

Vehicles for Directly Operated and Purchased Transportation Services for a Specific Mode

For tables covering directly operated (DO) service only, the specific vehicle counts provided are only for those DO by the transit agency, as reported on the Transit Agency Identification form (B-10) for DO services. Therefore, a transit agency may be grouped in a larger fleet-size category than the number of vehicles shown in a specific table.

For example, a transit agency that both directly operates 450 non-rail vehicles and purchases services involving 75 non-rail vehicles, for a total of 525 vehicles is grouped in the 500-999 VOMS category. However, in a DO services only table this transit agency would show only 450 vehicles in the VOMS column, because only 450 vehicles are DO. Footnotes have been added to specific tables to indicate when VOMS data are derived only from DO services.

Multi-modal transit agencies are included in categories for the number of VOMS for the combined fleet size for all modes.

Vehicles Available for Maximum Service

Data are reported on the Service form (S-10). They include:

If the total active fleet for a given mode varies during the year, the reported figure represents the same time period as that used to report vehicles operated in maximum service (VOMS). Thus, the difference between vehicles available for maximum service can be used to compute a transit agency’s spare ratio.

Total active fleet data from the Revenue Vehicle Inventory form (A-30), reporting in Table 25, has been consistent since 1984. Unlike the vehicles available for maximum service data described above, the total active fleet data in Table 25 represent only those vehicles owned by the reporting transit agency at the end of their fiscal year and are reported by vehicle type, not mode.

Completeness and Accuracy of the Data

The data submitted to FTA are subjected to extensive analysis and validation. The process includes:

FTA’s role is to identify and resolve questions regarding the data’s accuracy and determine whether or not the data is included in the National Transit Database and the Annual Report. FTA can reject a transit agency’s report if the report is not in full compliance with reporting requirements. FTA may also refuse to enter data whose reliability is questionable. FTA does not change reported data.

The quality of the database improves each year as FTA simplifies and clarifies reporting procedures, enhances the reporting software and designs more sophisticated validation checks. Data validation encompasses primarily a review of reported data for consistency and reasonableness. The limitations of these procedures, as well as the volume of data submitted, may permit some erroneous data to find their way into this report. Errors of significant magnitude have been identified and corrected, but some minor errors remain. Minor errors generally result from difficulties experienced by transit agencies in obtaining information or from misinterpretation of certain data requirements or definitions.

Caution

With the limitations described above and keeping in mind that weather conditions, topography, contractual work rules, etc., are not reported, users of this report should not draw unwarranted conclusions when examining the data. Although comparative evaluations are appealing, analyses cannot account for apparent differences in performance. Such evaluations should encompass a more detailed examination of underlying factors (unique aspects of the transit agency's operating environment, specific management practices, or unusual events during the period covered).

Further Information on the Reporting System

The following FTA documents are available to assist the reader gain a greater understanding of NTD reporting requirements:

Exhibit 5 — NTD Reference Documents

The Reference document listed below are available from for downloading or viewing from the NTD website:

Current Reporting Manuals

·       Annual

·       Safety and Security

·       Monthly

·       Rural

NTD Final Rule (49 CFR Part 630)

Uniform System of Accounts (USOA)

Government Auditing Standards

Fully Allocated Cost Analysis

OMB Circular A-87 (Revised 5/4/95, As Further Amended 8/29/97) (http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/a087/a087-all.html)

National Incident-Based Reporting System, Vol. 1: Data Collection Guidelines, US. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Aug 2000,

UMTA C 2710.1A - Sampling Procedures for Obtaining Fixed Route Bus Operating Data Required Under the Section 15 Reporting System

UMTA C 2710.2A - Sampling Procedures for Obtaining Demand Response Bus System Operating Data Required Under the Section 15 Reporting System

These and other documents are available upon request from:

Federal Transit Administration
National Transit Database
P.O. Box 457
Merrifield, VA 22116-0457
(703) 462-5220

Industry / Government Cooperation

The National Transit Database (NTD) Reporting program evolved from the transit industry-initiated Project FARE (Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Elements). Over the years, a cooperative working environment has developed between the transit industry and the Federal government regarding issues relevant to data collection and the reporting system. Private and public sectors have recognized the importance of, and need for, timely and accurate data from which to assess the continued progress of the nation's mass transportation agencies.

A Reporting System Advisory Committee was established in January 1983 to make recommendations on improving the quality and usefulness of data collected under the program. Many of these recommendations were then incorporated in the Annual Report. The Advisory Committee's charter expired on September 30, 1986.

In its ongoing efforts to continue this cooperative effort, FTA urges all interested parties, including transit operators, state and local governments, planning organizations, trade unions, research organizations, etc., to review and critique this edition of the Data Tables and all publications comprising the Annual Report. Comments and suggestions should be forwarded to FTA at: www.fta.dot.gov, or: www.NTDProgram.gov.

Data Availability

The Data Tables for report years 1996 through 2007 can be downloaded from FTA’s web site at www.fta.dot.gov and the FTA NTD Project’s web site at www.NTDProgram.gov.

Complete databases going back to 1997 are also available for download at www.NTDProgram.gov.

The data contained in the Annual Report are also available on disk organized by table and are compatible with PCs using Lotus 1-2-3 software. For further information on availability and associated costs, please contact:

McTrans Center
512 Weil Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-9988
(904) 392-0378

or

PC-Trans
University of Kansas
Transportation Center
2011 Learned Hall
Lawrence, KS 66045
(913) 864-565

Additionally, complete data (including data not published in this report) and data for prior report years, are also available from:

NTD Project
U.S. Department of Transportation
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
DTS-49, Kendall Square
Cambridge, MA 02142
(617) 494-2259
Fax: (617) 494-3260

 


Chapter 2 – The Data Tables

The data in this publication have a broad range of applications. They are, however, subject to the limitations discussed in Chapter 1 relating to the need to perform a more detailed examination of underlying factors and data consistency. The statistics in Chapter 2 allow transit agencies to compare their performance more selectively; e.g., by selecting those agencies defined as being within the same peer group by virtue of climate, topography, demographic characteristics of the population served, or factors other than industry averages.

Caution

Some users of the data may tend to overstate the significance of comparisons that are based strictly on data contained in this report. Performance measures obtained using these data should be viewed strictly as tentative indicators of potential areas of improvement. If a specific indicator appears to imply below-average performance relative to industry peers, more detailed analysis is needed to reveal the factors underlying the below average value.

Chapter 2 presents a detailed performance snapshot during a particular period for 577 transit agencies. Since the majority of agencies have reported in prior report years, the data can also be used for time-series analyses. Such analyses can contribute to conclusions on the current and evolving conditions and problems of specific transit agencies, and the transit industry as a whole. Time-series analyses, however, must consider two important factors:

1.     Beginning with the 1983 report, annual reports were published based on transit agencies' fiscal years, rather than the Federal Fiscal Year period (at that time, July 1 to June 30). See Special Notes on Reporting and the Data Tables in Chapter 1 for additional details.

2.     Beginning with the 1990 Annual Report, individual transit agency statistics are reported.

Special Notes on the Desegregated Data Tables

Users of these tables should refer to the Special Notes on Reporting and the Data Tables section in Chapter 1 for a better understanding of the data, particularly the discussions of purchased transportation (PT); public and private transit agency identification; vehicles operated in annual maximum service; and questionable data items, to avoid confusion. Especially when performing comparative analyses using previously published reports, users should refer to these sections as well as the discussions of individual tables in this chapter.

Reporting Changes

Through the NTD, FTA has implemented several reporting changes since 1992. The following exhibit summarizes these changes, and should be referred to when undertaking analysis involving two or more report years.

Reporting Changes Summary 1996 to 2007

1996 report year

Reported the full cost of purchased transportation (PT) services, including expenses incurred by the seller when the buyer under the PT agreement does not pay for the full cost of the service

Reported cash and non-cash reconciling expenditures at system-wide level

Reported total operating expense attributable to Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) compliance requirements for demand response

Reported annual total number of unlinked passenger trips (UPT) eligible as ADA trips

1997 report year

Reported PT expenses by function

Reported safety and security for PT

1998 report year

Replaced object classes fare revenues returned to the buyer and fare revenues retained by the seller with PT fare revenues (Old Operating Funding form 203)

Included operating expenses (OE) paid for by capital funds

Replaced revenue service interruptions (mechanical and other reasons) with revenue system failures for major and minor systems (Old Revenue Vehicle Maintenance and Energy form 402)

1999 report year

Included maintenance facilities leased by transit agencies

Included employee hours for part-time (PT) employees

2000 report year

Created new vehicle type codes for taxicabs (see chapter 1, page 4-5)

Changed definition of capital expenditures to be consistent with OMB A-87

2001 report year

PT reported separately (object class 508.02) was reported by function

Service interruptions reported for major mechanical failures and other mechanical failures that prevent revenue vehicles from completing their trips (directly reported (DO) service)

2002 report year

Eliminated requirement for submission of separate and complete reports by sellers of PT operating more than 100 vehicles in maximum service.

Created module for periodic reporting of the condition of public agency transportation assets and the projected renewal cost.

Revamped the reporting of safety and security data. Created a separate module to capture data on a monthly or quarterly basis depending upon agency’s size.

Reorganized the reporting of operating funds into a single form with the incorporation of funds earned, funds applied in operations and funds applied in capital.

Expanded sources of directly generated funds with the creation of funding categories for concessions, and advertising revenues.

Fare revenues reported by mode and type of service (TOS)

Expanded categories for uses of capital funds. New categories include revenue vehicles, service vehicles, passenger stations, maintenance facilities, systems, guideway, and other.

Other costs incurred by buyer for PT reported by object class and function.

Reduced requirement for reporting operators’ wages data. Time classifications collapsed into three main operating time categories: platform time, straight time allowances, and premium time. Threshold for reporting data decreased: only agencies directly operating more than 150 vehicles operated in maximum service are required to report. The threshold in prior years was 100 vehicles operated in maximum service.

Created an asset module which includes stations (rail and non-rail), maintenance facilities, transit way mileage, and revenue vehicle inventory.

Eliminated old bus (MB) categories in the revenue vehicle inventory form (based on seating capacity), replacing them with a single category. Reported vehicle length.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) fleet was broken down into new categories for ramp-equipped and lift equipped vehicles.

New item for year of rebuild in the revenue vehicle inventory form.

Expanded categories for maintenance facilities for purchased transportation (PT) with the inclusion of facilities leased by public agency and facilities leased by service provider.

Expanded transit way mileage for MB and trolleybus (TB) with the reporting of lane miles.

2003 report year

Created new categories in the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10) for bonds and loan revenues and expenditures.

Eliminated the breakdown of some directly generated funds categories by operating and capital funding. Categories include auxiliary transportation funds, park and ride revenues, other transportation revenues, and non-transportation revenues.

Created new categories for uses of capital funding (administration buildings and fare collection equipment).

Created categories for capital projects - existing (rehabilitation, overhaul, reconstruction) and expansion of service.

2004 report year

Created new funding category for funds earned from high occupancy tolls (HO/T).

Created new category for other directly generated funds.

Urbanized area formula funds and other FTA funds were broken down into two categories each: operating funds expended on eligible operating assistance and capital assistance spent on operations.

2005 report year

No changes

2006 report year

No changes

2007 report year

Primary Federal funding programs of the Federal Transit Administration are separate line items. Previously, only the § 5309 Capital Program and the § 5307 Urbanized Area Formula Program were captured; other FTA programs were reported under Other FTA funds.

Revenues accrued through a purchased transportation agreement are separated into sellers with purchased transportation agreements with an NTD reporter and sellers with purchased transportation agreements with a non-NTD reporter. Previously, sellers of service to non-NTD reporters detailed funding by the source of the buyer’s funds, e.g., general revenues of a local governmental entity.

Transit Revenues — Tables 1 through 11

Tables 1 through 15 contain information on types of operating and capital funds applied for individual transit agencies. Operating funds applied are reported by transit agency totals, not by individual modes. Table totals are provided for national totals, fleet size, and size of urbanized area (UZA); however, these totals vary depending on the number of transit agencies reported.

Also, for these tables the number of vehicles operated in annual maximum service includes those vehicles used for both directly operated (DO) and purchased transportation (PT) services included under the same transit agency's identification number, as reported on the Service form (S-10). The only exceptions are Table 11 (Capital Funds Applied by Type of Expenditure) and Table 15 (Operators' Wages), which detail data by mode. The NTD uses accrual accounting to record financial data; i.e., revenues reported are those that resulted in liabilities for benefits received during the fiscal year (FY), regardless of whether or not payment of the expenditure was made during the reporting period.

Table Descriptions

Transit revenue applied data are presented in the following tables:

Table 1: Summary of Operating Funds Applied

View Table 1.xls

Compiled from the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10) and reported system wide. This form incorporates the revenue data by describing the funding sources for operating expenditures, using directly generated funds (Uniform System of Accounts object classes 401 through 440) and the contribution of Federal, state, and local government funds to the operating subsidy of transit agencies.

Columns Other directly generated funds and Federal assistance had changes in 2007.

This table includes only operating revenues expended in the reporting period under accrual accounting and is intended to provide a summary of operating funds by major categories:

Under Directly Generated Funds, the data in the column Dedicated and Other includes:

The Other Federal Public Funds column details operating funding from sources including:

The aggregation of operating funds applied does not include some funding sources reported by private providers under contract to public agencies. More specifically, revenues accrued to a PT agreement and fare revenues are taken out in the aggregation of funds because the buyers of service also report these funding sources. The items affected are then DO, PT fare revenues and other directly generated revenues, which include revenues accrued to a PT agreement.

Table 2: Directly Generated Sources for Transit Operating Funds Applied: Details by Transit Agency

View Table 02.xls

Data are compiled from the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10). This table was created in 2002 to provide more detail of directly generated sources of funds including the new sub-categories for auxiliary transportation funds — concessions, advertising revenues and other. It does not include directly generated taxes as these categories are detailed in Table 6. All other directly generated categories were included as separate items. Revenues Accrued through a Purchased Transportation agreement includes purchased transportation agreements with an NTD reporter and sellers with purchased transportation agreements with a non-NTD reporter.

A new column for Bonds and Loans was added in 2004.

As with Table 1, in order to avoid double-counting of funds, DO and PT fare revenues does not include fare revenues reported by private transportation providers under contract to public agencies. In addition, revenues accrued through a PT agreement reported by these providers are taken out in the aggregation of funds.

Table 3: Federal Government Sources for Transit Operating Funds Applied

View Table 03.xls

Data are compiled from the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10). This table provides a breakdown of Federal operating assistance funds by those attributable to urbanized area (UZA) operating assistance funds and UZA capital assistance funds used in operations. Items include funds from the FTA Urbanized Area Formula Program (Section 5307), Other FTA funds such as FTA Metropolitan Planning, FTA Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Formula Program, Non-urbanized Area Formula Program among others, Other USDOT Grant Programs, and Other Federal Funds.

Urbanized Area Funds (Section 5307) was broken into two categories:

  1. Operating funds expended on eligible operating assistance; and
  2. Capital assistance spent on capital projects.

Other FTA funds were also broken into these two categories and now include several other new funding sources reported in 2007:

Tables 4 and 5: State Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Operating Funds Applied and Local Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Operating Funds Applied

Tables 4 and 5 are compiled from the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10) and state and local taxes, respectively, applied to transit operations. Operating funding from dedicated taxes are desegregated by type of tax (income, sales, property, gasoline, or other). The Other Taxes column includes any other special state or local taxes dedicated at their source to transit operating funding such as payroll and utility taxes.

Table 6: Directly Generated Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Operating Funds Applied

View Table 6.xls

Table 6 is compiled from the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10). This table provides a breakdown of directly generated dedicated taxes, by income, sales, property, gasoline, and other, applied to transit operations.

Table 7: Transit Capital Funds Applied — Summary and Federal Sources

View Table 7.xls

Data were compiled from the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10). This table provides a summary of state, local, and directly generated funding sources and detailed Federal funding sources applied to capital. Federal sources of assistance are classified either as funds provided under 49 USC 5309, 49 USC 5307, or from other sources. State and local sources are divided into general revenue and dedicated. Dedicated sources restrict funds to transportation-related expenditures, while transit must compete with other public programs for general revenues. Dedicated sources of funds are desegregated into taxes (income, sales, etc.) and other (bridges, tunnels, state and local bonds, investment income, etc.).

The summary of capital funds applied includes the following categories:

Tables 8 and 9: State Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Capital Funds Applied and Local Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Capital Funds Applied

View Table 8.xls

View Table 9.xls

Tables 8 and 9 are compiled from the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10). These two tables further desegregate the state and local tax revenue applied for public transit capital that was shown in Table 7.

Table 10: Directly Generated Taxes Dedicated at their Source for Transit Capital Funds Applied

View Table 10.xls

Data are compiled from the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10). Collection of these data is a new reporting requirement. Table 10 provides a breakdown of directly generated dedicated taxes by income, sales, property, gasoline, and other applied for transit capital.

Table 11: Capital Funds Applied by Type of Expenditure

View Table 11.xls

Data are compiled from the Uses of Capital form (F-20). Table 11 provides a breakdown of the capital funds applied and how they were used by mode, type of service (TOS) and capital project category (rehabilitation / reconstruction / replacement / improvement for existing service or expansion of service) for nine primary categories: revenue vehicles, service vehicles, passenger stations, maintenance buildings, administration buildings, systems, guideway, fare collection equipment and other. Aggregate totals for each mode reported by a transit agency are also provided.

Revenue vehicles include capital expenses to replace, rehabilitate, remanufacture, and expansion of existing fleet. It also includes major rail fleet overhaul.

Service vehicles include the acquisition or rehabilitation of service vehicles – vehicles that are not used to provide transit service for passengers. Examples of service vehicles include staff cars, supervisor vans, etc.

Passenger stations include the cost for design and engineering, land acquisition and relocation, demolition, and purchase or construction of stations. (See text for Table 21 for station criteria).

Maintenance buildings include the cost for design and engineering, land acquisition and relocation, demolition, and purchase or construction of maintenance buildings. Maintenance buildings include garages, shops (body, paint, machine), and operations centers.

Administration buildings include the capital expenses for administrative buildings, including the cost of design and engineering, land acquisition, and relocations, demolitions and purchases of administrative buildings.

Systems include information and communication systems that relay information between locations.

Guideways include the costs for design and engineering, land acquisition and relocation, demolition, and purchase or construction of guideway. Guideways include the buildings and structures dedicated to the operation of transit vehicles, track and power systems for rail, and paved highway lanes dedicated to bus and trolleybus.

Fare revenue collection equipment includes capital expenses for the acquisition of fare revenue collection equipment, such as turnstiles, fare boxes, automated fare boxes, etc.

Other uses of capital include furniture and equipment that are not an integral part of buildings and structures, shelters, signs and passenger amenities (e.g. benches) not in passenger stations.

Potential Data Applications

Tables 1 through 11 summarize the magnitude and source of transit funds applied for individual transit agencies. The data in these tables permit analyses of the extent to which specific agencies recover operating expenses (OE) from fares, as well as the extent to which they rely on various sources of directly generated, local, state, and/or Federal assistance to apply to their operation.

Transit agencies can use these data to compare the types of funds applied and the percentage distributions of their sources to those of other agencies. In general, the data permit cross-sectional and time-series analyses, but more specifically they allow analysts to examine individual agencies and to custom-define peer groups. For example, peer groups could be formed based on mode, fleet size, annual OE, or other factors not contained in this report, such as climate and collective bargaining agreements. Comparisons can then be made to the individual transit agencies in the group averages.

Transit Expenses — Tables 12 through 15

Operating expenses (OE) are reported using accrual accounting and reported in the year they were incurred. This is the year in which they result in liabilities for benefits received, regardless of whether payment is made during the reporting period.

Tables 12 through 14 contain information on the types and amounts of expenses incurred by individual transit agencies. Transit expenses are reported by function and by object class. The number of vehicles operated in annual maximum service includes those vehicles used for both directly operated (DO) and purchased transportation (PT) services included under the same transit agency's identification number, as reported on the Service form (S-10).

Functional classes divide OE into four major categories or functions:

1.     Vehicle operations (VO)

2.     Vehicle maintenance (VM)

3.     Non-vehicle maintenance (NM), and

4.     General administration (GA).

Analysis of expenses by function must be qualified by the degree to which transit agencies uniformly allocate expenses among these categories. This analysis should include careful consideration of reporting limitations as well as detailed accounting practices at the specific transit agencies examined.

Expenses by function are reported for both directly operated (DO) and purchased transportation (PT) services beginning in 1997. Starting in 2002, other costs incurred by buyer were reported by function and object class. These are expenses incurred by public agencies that are directly attributable to the provision of PT services. It may include items such as monitoring, providing maintenance service or other resources the buyer uses to support the PT services.

Object classes divide operating expenses (OE) into categories such as labor, fringe benefits, services, and materials and supplies, among others.

While revenue data are summarized for all modes operated by a transit agency, the expense data are desegregated by mode. Multi-modal transit agencies were required to fully allocate expenses to the appropriate modes for each of the various functional categories in 1999.

The operating expenses summarized in these tables exclude reconciling items, e.g.:

Reconciling items are reported only as agency totals and are not desegregated by mode or functional class. Reconciling items are required to provide an overall total that is consistent with the total operating funding applied and with published reports. These expenses are reported separately because local accounting practices for handling such items (particularly depreciation and amortization) differ widely. Generally, analysts using these data exclude reconciling items from OE. Although this actually understates true operating costs, it resolves the problems inherent with inconsistent treatment of reconciling items.

Table Descriptions

Transit expense data for individual transit agencies are summarized in the following tables:

Table 12: Transit Operating Expenses by Mode Type of Service and Function

View Table 12.xls

Compiled from the Operating Expenses form (F-30), for each mode reported. PT expenses include both PT in report (object class 508.01) and PT filing a separate report (object class 508.02). Expenses for object class 508.02 are separated by both the buyer and seller(s); therefore the summary for tables excludes this object class to prevent double counting.

These expenses were collapsed under the column Purchased Transportation in Report prior to 1997.

Object classes 508.01 and 508.02 reflect the full cost of PT services except in cases where part of the funding for the purchased service is provided by the seller(s). Object classes 508.01 and 508.02 include:

In cases of PT involving 100 or more vehicles operated in annual maximum service, expense data are reported twice:

1.     By the contracting agencies (buyer) as a PT expense (under object class 508.02), and

2.     By the contract provider (seller), by function and object class, if the seller is not a brokerage system.

Brokers report separately if the PT agreements involve more than 100 vehicles operated in maximum service (VOMS), but their expenses are lumped under object class 508.01 and are detailed by function.

In general, expenses reported under object class 508.02 are greater than expenses reported by the seller(s) due to contract costs incurred by the buyer as well as profit made off the transaction by the seller(s).

The summarization of operating expenses (OE) by urbanized area (UZA) size, mode, and vehicle group totals is calculated by totaling all columns, except object class 508.02 to avoid double counting of data when OE are aggregated.

Table 13: Transit Operating Expenses by Mode and Object Class

View Table 13.xls

Compiled from the Operating Expenses form (F-30), for each mode reported. Object class categories correspond to those reported on the Operating Expenses form (F-30).

501.01           Operators’ salaries and wages

501.02           Other salaries and wages

502                Fringe benefits

503                Services

504.01           Fuel and lubricants

504.02           Tires and tubes

504.99           Other materials and supplies

505                Utilities

506                Casualty and liability costs

508.01           Purchased transportation (PT) (in report)

508.02           PT (filing separate report)

In addition, 507 (Taxes) and 509 (Miscellaneous expenses) are included as Other. A separate column showing 510 (Expense transfers) is included in this table. Double counting of OE exists in this table for a limited number of transit agencies (See discussion about object classes 508.01 and 508.02 above for Table 12). The summarization of OE by UZA size, by mode, and vehicle group totals is calculated by summing all columns except PT filing a separate report (object class 508.02) to avoid double counting of data when OE are aggregated.

Starting in 2002, other costs incurred by the buyer were reported by function and object class. For PT modes, expenses for object classes 501 through 506 include expenses incurred by the buyers of service net of fare revenues and contract costs associated to the purchased services. Seller’s expenses are in general not reported by object classes 501 through 506, but are reported by function.

Table 14: Transit Operating Expenses and Object Class — Single Bus Mode Agencies

View Table 14.xls

Data are compiled from the Operating Expenses form (F-30). Data are cross classified by major functional and object classes as per Table 13.

The summarization of OE by UZA size, mode, and vehicle group totals is calculated by totaling all columns except object class 508.02 to avoid double counting of data when OE are aggregated.

The total number of buses (MB) operated in annual maximum service includes those MB used for both directly operated (DO) services and for PT services. The totals are included under the same transit agency's identification number as reported on the Service form (S-10) by type of service (TOS) for MB.

Table 15: Operators Wages: Details by Transit Agency

View Table 15.xls

Data are compiled from the Operators’ Wages form (F-50) and is required from agencies directly operating 150 or more vehicles in annual maximum service but does not apply for vanpools (VP) and demand response (DR).

The data is divided into operating and non-operating time. Operating time includes:

Non-operating time includes a single category encompassing all non-operating activities such as training time and other functions.

Potential Data Applications

The expense tables summarize the costs of operating individual transit agencies. Data are desegregated into mode, function, and object classes. These data can be used to compare costs among various transit agencies and to determine potential areas for improvement. As discussed in Chapter 1, such analysis should incorporate careful examination of all causal factors underlying these differences. This examination can require information beyond that which is obtainable from this reporting system.

Non-Financial Operating Data — Tables 16 through 25

Tables 16 through 25 contain non-financial operating data for individual transit agencies.

The non-financial operating data includes the following modules:

The Resource module includes the Employees form (R-10), Maintenance Performance form (R-20), and Energy Consumption form (R-30). The data is included in tables 16, 17 and 18 respectively.

The Service Module includes the Transit Agency Service form (S-10) and the data is included in tables 19 and 20.

The Asset Module includes the Stations and Maintenance Facilities form (A-10), Transit Way Mileage form (A-20), and Revenue Vehicle Inventory form (A-30). The data is detailed on tables 21 through 25.

Table Descriptions

Non-financial operating data are provided in the following tables. For multi-modal agencies, data are desegregated by individual modes, and when applicable, by type of service (TOS).

Resource Module

Table 16: Revenue Vehicle Maintenance Performance

View Table 16.xls

Table 16 summarizes the number of revenue system failures. Data is reported for directly operated (DO) service only.

Analyzing data from this table generally requires additional data, such as vehicle miles. A reporting change was initiated in 2001 with the inclusion of system failures for major and other mechanical reasons that prevent the revenue vehicles from completing their trips, or starting new trips.

Major mechanical failure is defined the same as the previous definition of interruptions for mechanical reasons (1997 and prior years). Such failures require assistance from someone other than the revenue vehicle operator(s) to restore the vehicle to an operating condition, and they usually prevent the vehicle from continuing in revenue service. Major system failures include malfunctions in:

Other mechanical failures in general do not usually prevent the vehicle from continuing in revenue service. However, the minor system failures reported to the NTD in 2004 and 2005 were those that prevented the revenue vehicle(s) from completing their trips, either due to internal policies of agencies or due to other mechanical mishaps that prevented trip completion. Other system failures are the same as interruptions due to other reasons (1997 and prior years) and include:

System failure figures should be viewed as gross indicators. Analysis of system failures as measures of maintenance performance should be undertaken with caution, requiring detailed examination of how system failures were defined and the individual agencies' policies for taking vehicles out of service. Application of data over time is also relevant in determining trends and conducting further analysis.

Table 17: Energy Consumption

View Table 17.xls

Data for this table are compiled from the Energy Consumption form (R-30). The number of vehicles operated in annual maximum service is those vehicles used for directly operated (DO) services only, as reported on the Transit Agency Service form (S-10).

Fuel types reported are for revenue vehicles only and do not include lubricants. With the exception of KWH of propulsion power used in rail modes and KWH to charge bus batteries, all data is reported in gallons of fuel. When the fuel used is a mixture of fuels, each individual fuel type used in the mixture is reported.

Table 18: Employee Work Hours and Employee Counts

View Table 18.xls

Employee work hours were broken down into full-time (FT) and part-time employee (PT) categories in 1999. Prior to that time only total work hours were reported. The column labeled Employee Type indicates whether the employees are full-time or part-time. Data is reported for DO service only.

The table is compiled from the Employees form (R-10) and data are collected for both employee work hours and an actual person count at fiscal year end (FYE). A fractional entry for actual person counts result when employees work for more than one function, mode, or type of service (TOS). In those instances the actual person count is prorated among labor classifications and modes by TOS. When working on capital projects, an employee's labor is considered a capital expense; otherwise, it is an operating expense (OE).

Some care is required for analyses of the data presented in this table. Work hours cover the entire report year, whereas employee counts are based on those employed on the last day of the report year. This may distort the annual average number of hours per employee.

While many transit modes are labor intensive, others are not. Due to the unique characteristics of their operations, some modes such as vanpool (VP) do not always provide complete employee-related data. Another reporting anomaly sometimes occurs when transit agencies providing DO service use contracted services for a portion of the service provision. In these situations, labor is either not reported for an activity (e.g., vehicle maintenance) or only reported for the labor that is engaged in activities associated with the contract services. As a result, labor is understated and, when reported within a DO report, can create misleading information. Examples of how this occurs include:

When zero and/or low values are reported within a directly operated (DO) report, caution should be exercised in the use of employee-related data.

Service Module

Service supplied data include vehicle miles, vehicle revenue miles (VRM), vehicle hours, and vehicle revenue hours (VRH) and scheduled VRM. Transit agencies were asked to report both their scheduled and actual VRM of service starting in 1984. The purpose of adding scheduled VRM of service is to allow a transit agency to indicate whether it may have more or less service than was originally scheduled or planned. The difference between vehicle miles and VRM represents deadheading. Definitions of the above data terms can be found in the Reporting Manual Glossary.

Service consumed data refer to ridership information (measures of use of the service supplied) and include unlinked passenger trips (UPT) and passenger miles travelled (PMT).

PMT data are normally collected through sampling because it is usually not part of a transit agency’s routine operations and is among the most difficult to collect. While FTA has developed several such techniques, transit agencies were allowed to use self-certifying sampling techniques beginning with the 1990 report year. Regardless of the sampling technique used, it must satisfy precision and confidence level requirements of 10 percent and 95 percent, respectively.

Service supplied and service consumed data are reported on the Transit Agency Service form (S-10); data are reported for average weekday, average Saturday, average Sunday and annual total. Only annual total is depicted in the data tables.

Table 19: Transit Operating Statistics: Service Supplied and Service Consumed

View Table 19.xls

This table summarizes transit agency service supplied and service consumed data. Data are compiled from the Transit Agency Service form (S-10) for DO and purchased transportation (PT) service.

Vehicles available for maximum service represent the total annual active service fleet and include:

They do not include vehicles being held for sale, emergency contingency use, etc.

If the total active fleet for a given mode varies during the year, the reported figure represents the same time period as that used to report vehicles operated in maximum service (VOMS). Thus, the difference between vehicles available for annual maximum service and vehicles operated in annual maximum service can be used to compute a transit agency’s spare ratio. See Chapter 1 for further details on vehicle data.

With regards to demand response (DR), jitney (JT), publico (PB), and vanpool (VP) modes, data for the column Annual Scheduled Vehicle Revenue Miles have been zeroed. By definition, these modes do not have scheduled service.

For rail modes, service supplied (VRM, vehicle miles, VRH, vehicle hours) refers to passenger car data. A separate table (Table 20) was created to accommodate train statistics.

Table 20: Transit Operating Statistics; Service Supplied and Consumed — Train Statistics

View Table 20.xls

This table was created in 2002 to accommodate train data reported on the Transit Agency Service form (S-10). Data is reported by mode and type of service (TOS) and applies to rail modes only.

Items include number of trains operated in an average weekday, train miles and hours, train revenue miles and hours.

Asset Module

Table 21: Passenger Stations

View Table 21.xls

This table was created in 2002 to accommodate transit stations, elevators and escalators, and Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) stations data. Data is reported by mode and type of service (TOS).

The passenger station information is only reported for fixed-route, fixed scheduled services (includes rail modes, bus (MB), trolleybus (TB), and ferryboat (FB)). All stations used for public transportation are reported regardless of who owns them.

To determine what constitutes a passenger station, the following criteria apply:

Table 22: Maintenance Facilities

View Table 22.xls

Data are compiled from the Stations and Maintenance Facilities form (A-10). The number of vehicles operated in annual maximum service represents those vehicles used for directly operated (DO) and purchased transportation (PT) services.

This table includes data for maintenance facilities owned and leased by transit agencies. Prior to 1999, only maintenance facilities owned by transit agencies were reported.

In 2001, for PT, only the maintenance facilities leased by service providers were reported. Starting in 2002, categories for PT leased facilities were expanded with the inclusion of facilities leased by public agency for service provider and facilities leased by service provider.

The data summarizes transit maintenance facilities based on the number of vehicles assigned to the facility. In addition, two classifications of facilities are defined for general-purpose use and heavy maintenance work.

A general-purpose facility is the most commonly reported facility, because it provides running repairs, servicing, and vehicle storage as well as component repair and overhaul.

A heavy maintenance facility is one wholly dedicated to component repair and overhaul, and usually only the larger transit agencies have such a facility.

The number of vehicles assigned to a facility will vary depending on its size (capacity) and the number of modes operated by the agency. Also, unique geographical features and/or constraints that may make it more economical to operate more than one facility to support a small fleet of vehicles may result in a greater number of facilities being reported for the transit fleet than would normally be required. Many transit agencies are operating multi-modal service (e.g., MB and demand response (DR) systems), and in such cases the facility is required to be allocated among the modes using the facility.

For example, if a transit agency reports 100 total vehicles, of which 70 are MB and 30 were DR, it would allocate the facility as .7 for MB and .3 for DR. When relatively small transit agencies report multiple facilities, one needs to consider some of the factors mentioned above and whether or not a proper allocation was performed.

Tables 23 and 24: Transit Way Mileage — Rail and Non-Rail

Table 23

Table 24

Data are compiled from the Transit Way Mileage form (A-20), directly operated (DO) and PT services.

Tables 23 and 24 display transit way mileage in separate groups:

This separation provides for easier comparison of like modes and reduces the number of unnecessary blank entries. By law directional route mileage (DRM) for ferryboat (FB) and trolleybus (TB) modes is classified as exclusive for reporting purposes.

The term directional route mileage (DRM) is defined as:

The mileage in each direction over routes that public transportation vehicles travel while in revenue service.

Directional route miles are a measure of the facility or roadway, not the amount or frequency of service carried on the facility; i.e., number of routes or vehicle revenue miles (VRM). They are determined by direction of service, but not by the number of traffic lanes or rail tracks existing in a given right-of-way (ROW).

If vehicles travel in only one direction within a ROW, each mile is counted once. If vehicles travel in both directions, each mile is counted twice. A mile of single track over which commuter rail (CR) service operates in both directions represents two DRM.

The number of routes along the measured distance does not influence directional mileage; e.g., a mile of exclusive busway on which a transit agency operates six different routes in only a single direction represents one directional mile.

Lane miles on the other hand, are the length of a roadway (in miles) dedicated to high-occupancy vehicles (HOV) multiplied by the number of traffic lanes.

For example, a reversible high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) facility 10 miles long with one traffic lane (operated Northbound in the morning and Southbound in the evening) accounts for 10 lane miles, but because traffic is bi-directional, the number of fixed-guideway directional route miles (FG DRM) is 20 miles.

Like DRM, lane miles can be either on exclusive or controlled ROW facilities.

Table 23 includes track mileage by construction type, number of crossings, and total DRM and applies for rail modes only.

Table 24 includes lane and DRM on exclusive and controlled ROW and DRM in mixed traffic. This table applies for bus (MB) and TB but also includes FB (DRM) since lane miles apply to MB and TB only.

Table 25: Age Distribution of Active Revenue Vehicle Inventory

View Table 25.xls

Data are compiled from the Revenue Vehicle Inventory form (A-30) for directly operated (DO) and purchased transportation (PT) services. Vehicle Type and Active Vehicles by Age Grouping show data in the total active fleets. Vehicle type codes are listed in Chapter 1. The age of a vehicle is considered to be the number of years since its date of manufacture.

Several reporting changes were implemented to revenue vehicle inventory data in 2002. The change that affected this table in particular was the replacement of old MB categories BA (buses seating more than 35 passengers), BB (buses seating between 25 and 35 passengers), and BC (buses seating less than 25 passengers) by a single category “BU”. In addition, vehicle length was introduced which created the possibility of classifying bus size by actual length, not by seating capacity as in the past.

In addition, active Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) fleet was broken down into 2 new categories: MB that are ramp-equipped and those that are lift-equipped.

The NTD reporting system is based on a transit agency’s fiscal year. Over 60 percent of all transit agencies reporting complete their respective fiscal year (FY) before the end of a calendar year. As a result, a revenue vehicle manufactured, delivered, tested, and accepted by a transit agency after the fiscal year end (FYE) but within the calendar or manufacturer year will not be reported until the next report year. In general, two consecutive report years are needed to account for all new vehicles put into service in the first year.

Potential Data Applications

The data presented in tables 16 through 25 can be used to help answer questions regarding service provided by individual transit agencies relative to the investment required. For example, how many employees, how much fuel, and how many vehicles were required to provide that service; how safe was that service and how much use was made of the service by transit patrons.

Transit Performance Indicators — Tables 26 and 27

Data are derived using the Sources of Funds — Funds Expended and Funds Earned form (F-10), Operating Expenses form (F-30), the Employee form (R-10), and the Transit Agency Service form (S-10).

Tables 26 and 27 are comprised of data for directly operated (DO) and purchased transportation (PT) services and from selected performance indicators for individual transit agencies. In some cases, such as operating expense (OE) per employee work hours, the data is for DO service only as employee data is not reported for PT modes.

These indicators are not reported directly, but are computed from other reported data. Usually, these relate measures of service outputs to measures of resource inputs such as OE per vehicle hour, and resources inputs to service consumption such as OE per unlinked passenger trip (UPT). Performance measures are computed separately for each mode, and therefore should utilize only data items reported on a modal basis (revenues and reconciling expenses are excluded).

In 2002, performance indicators by mode and type of service (TOS) were expanded with the inclusion of recovery ratio (the ratio of fare revenues to OE) and fares per passenger. This was possibly due to the inclusion of fare revenues by mode in the 2002 NTD.

Many performance indicators can be computed from these data and other sources. Users should note the limitations relating to analyzing any performance indicators, and carefully examine underlying or causal factors in greater detail. Added to these limitations are data waivers granted to reporters due to reporting burden, initial report submission, unique circumstances, and other factors. The combinations of these limiting factors may compound interpretation and use of individual performance indicators for a particular mode and TOS.

Potential for distortion exists if only one or two performance indicators are viewed in isolation. For example, the single measure OE per UPT might be misleading for a transit agency with a disproportionately high number of transfers (caused, for example, by geographical or routing constraints).

Table Descriptions

Table 26: Fare per Passenger and Recovery Ratio

View Table 26.xls

This table includes two performance indicators: Recovery ratio (fare revenues per OE) and average fare per passenger. The data is for DO and PT.

Operating expenses exclude reconciling cash expenditures, as this data is not reported at mode level.

Table 27: Service Supplied and Consumed Ratios

View Table 27.xls

Table 27 includes ratios that relate variables of service input such as OE, to variables of service output such as VRM and vehicle hours (cost efficiency), and service inputs (OE) to service consumption (UPT and passenger miles travelled (PMT)) (cost effectiveness).

In addition, a breakdown of expenses per VRM for each of the 4 functions (vehicle operations, vehicle maintenance, non-vehicle maintenance, and general administration) is also provided.

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